Ostrogoth and Visigoth United Royal Successor House, Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel, alloidial heirs of the Amali and Balti Dynasties

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Successor of the Imperial and Royal Houses of Gothia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • SUCCESSORS OF THE BILLUNGS, AS THE DUKES AND EMPERORS OF SAXONY GERMANY(ROYAL HOUSE OF THE OSTROGOTHS)
  • TITLE OF PRINCE OF GUTINGI (GOTTINGEN) BECAME A HOUSE TITLE OF THE HOUSE OF ESTE-GUELPH BRUNSWICK
  • DESCENDANT OF THE ROYALTY OF GOTHIA IN THE TOULOUSE LANDS OF SPAIN AND FRANCE(NOW LANGUDOC)
  • THESE TWO LINES (VISIGOTH AND OSTROGOTH) WERE UNITED IN OTTO IV, THE DUKE OF BRUNSWICK, WHO WAS CROWNED EMPEROR OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
  • MOTHER OF ALL FRENCH KINGS, ARGOTTA, AND THE EARLY BRANCH OF THE GUELPHS (BRUNSWICK SENIOR BRANCH)
  • THE SWEDISH AND DANISH HOUSE OF GOTHIA
  • GOTHIAN SUCCESSION AND IMPERIAL SUCCESSION 
  • THE CONTINUAL PROTECTIONS OF CRIMEAN GOTHIA

SUCCESSORS OF THE BILLUNGS

Today the most reputed family of successors of the House of the Amalings (leading dynasty of the Goths), the Royal House of the Ostrogoths of Italy, is the Billungs. The primogeniture family successors of these Gothian houses is demonstrated herein. It is a long established fact of history as being realized in the House of Este-Guelph (head Dynastic Branch being Princes of Wolfenbuettel). The genealogy of the Billung’s successors are found below.

In 1137, control of Saxony passed to the Guelph dynasty, descendants of Wulfhild Billung, eldest daughter of the last Billung Duke, Emperor Lothar III of Supplinburg. Which passed to his Imperial successor Henry the Proud, to Henry the Lion of Brunswick, and his son Emperor Otto IV of Brunswick. Brunswick is Europe’s oldest living Royal (and Imperial) House in international law (though de jure and exiled, Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel is valid in international prescriptive law).

Hermannus Billung of Saxony is a direct male successor of Hengist, Witukind and Gauti.

From the time of Hengist, of Saxony, King of Kent, his son Aesc was King of Kent, and so was his son, Ochta, and his son Eormenric, and his son Saint Ethelbert I, and his son Aethelbert, and his son Eadbald, and his son Eormenred of Saxony all were kings of Kent England. He had a son son Aethelberht who remained a Lord in Saxony, and his son also a Graf in Saxony, was Billung von Wenden, and his son was Aethelbert II Billung of Saxony, and his sons were Bruno I and Amelung I Billung, (whose lines are documented a ways down to the year 1137 when they went extinct and their last female heir married the d’Este-Guelph male heir (of Brunswick). Amelung I fathered Bennid I Billung, who fathered Amelung II Billung, who fathered Amelung III Billung who failed to produce heirs in the 9th century. The line then continued via Bruno, as below, until Henry Leo (the Lion) of Brunswick, and to his son Emperor Otto IV von Brunswick, and the living legal successors today.

The Brunswick Welfen coat of arms (around 1200) from the tomb of Welfs VI. and Welfs VII. in St. Johannes Baptist (Steingaden); originally: blue lion on a gold background (today in the Bavarian National Museum, Munich). The Helmzier, two buffalo horns decorated with peacock feathers, has been handed down to the Welfen in Braunschweig since 1290, and they will later become today’s sickles. The coat of arms of the gentlemen of Ravensburg (Beienburg) in the Zurich coat of arms, who were in the service of the Welf Henry the Lion, shows both the lion (standing) and the buffalo horns decorated with peacock feathers.

Welfen Viking Coat of Arms Gothia Goths

 

Below are the main alloids (the hereditary estates) listed as their genealogical inheritance down to the main lines today in Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel. It is shown together with the Gottingen principality passing down (including Saxony through Henry the Lion etc).

(Note: Gottingen was spelled Swedish Gutingi in the oldest documents)

On the Brunoid line you can see how it went to Brunswick’s ancestor Emperor Lothaire, and the family’s other Saxon Emperors.

Brunoids were also Dukes of Frisia. Their realm of that time (around 900AD) were all using Runes on their coinage, of the older Elder Futhark version. Here is one coin of that period:

More on the Saxon German runes are found at: http://orthodoxchurch.nl/2020/04/hundreds-of-older-german-runes-demonstrate-the-scythian-goth-kinship-in-viking-and-saxon-nations-directly-linked-to-wolfenbuettel-brunswick/

House Chart: 

As you can see (above) In Butler’s genealogical charts, Göttingen being also interchangeable with Saxony on the Weser, as well as with Nordheim.

THE BRUNSWICK TITLE OF “PRINCE OF GUTINGI/GOTTINGEN”

When the House of Brunswick began using the title “prince of Gutingi/Göttingen” it was between the reigns of two Brunswick Emperors, that of Otto IV and Emperor Friedrich I von Brunswick[official HRE Emperors. As descendants of the Saxon Emperors the house had highest rights as Este-Guelph. As was at the beginning of the Guelph Ghibbline wars, Templar vs Hospitaller].

While Gottingen had long been an alloidial possession and capital for the house, the estate name of “prince of Göttingen” came to be only at this period, in honor of our Ottonian Emperor ancestors who kept their Imperial court there. These were largely of the Saxon-Billung-Gothian house.

The “agnates”[bloodline descendants] thenceforth have continued to use the title, maintaining the right of this estate of the Gutingi Imperial palace, still in the form of principality today, though only in de jure government-in-exile. All legitimate Brunswick descendants are born with the title of “a prince of Göttingen”, and only the head duke of Brunswick bears the title “The prince of Göttingen”. As heir of the largest portions of the Billung Saxony inheritance, it the Göttingen Imperial palace of numerous Emperors made the fitting alloid for Brunswick for most of the time, for the House.

The Coat of arms for the Principality of Göttingen is the House of Brunswick main coat of arms, as below:

(Note the Wolfenbuettel last de jure version of the flag it was with white and blue, not with gold. The gold however has been used anciently and interchangeably.)

The capital for the Brunswick Monarchy has primarily been Göttingen, it at other times was a subordinate secondary capital of some of the smaller estates under the larger Brunswick Monarchy. Strategically Brunswick city was capital for a time, and also the principality of Wolfenbuettel was a more convenient capital for the Greater Brunswick-Luneburg some time. Most subordinate principalities for the last 400 years acknowledged their subordinance writing their state names as Wolfenbuettel-Luneburg [for example] which was another principality of the many subordinate principalities to the Wolfenbuettel line of the chief senior branch of the house who reigned over all as Absolute Monarchs, which by definition was also a micro Empire itself, and has remained so today.

The Imperial crowns go much wider that one may read about, from Italy to Russia, to the last reigning Piasts, though those have all gone legally extinct as houses. Yet all we can say as far as our ancient and living house may always demonstrate, all sprung from this central Gutingi / Gothian heritage. Numerous other co-Tribal Kingdoms abound of which we are reuniting with today!

More information on this living house is available from the Priory of Salem, Peace Institute, if you write to the coadjutor at marshalofsalem@yahoo.com

DESCENDANT OF THE ROYALTY OF GOTHIA IN THE TOULOUSE LANDS OF SPAIN AND FRANCE(NOW LANGUDOC)

Many lines of the French high royal heritage of Henry the Lion go back to the Goths. One of these being the line of the Guelphs, which descend from a senior parent of Charlemagne. One of the highest perhaps is the line of Argotta, mother of all French Kings. It is officially part of the French history and so we include it in it’s own separate chapter, later on.

The Visigothic Name, Territory, and Dynasty remains in the titles of the Nobility of France. The peerage of France (highest ranking equal princes) have several hereditary princes of this realm, using the claim as the larger Province called “Languedoc”. Read the booklet by Jean Lafitte and article entitled “Languedoc, déformation de *Land Goth ?”. Dynastically it is also demonstratably preserved (as I give a taste below). The Visigothic family succession was preserved from the original Balti Dynasty via the Visigothic Princess Brunhilda, Grandmother of Pepin (and other Visigothic Nobles), thus transferring the rights to the Franks, later to the Dynastic descendants known as Counts of Toulouse and Princes of Gothia for an additional 800 years. The original Gothia (Visigoth) land realm remains in the name “Langeudoc” (Land of the Goths / Langue de Goth), according to numerous authentic records, encyclopedias, etc. Today you also can look it up on any map. Whether they call their territory Langeudoc or Gothia makes no difference, as all agree it is the same place, same tribe, and just a different spelling. It was continued legally through the female Visigoth Genealogy, also as a title “Gothia”, and later the same region colloquially as Languedoc. For most of the generations it remained within the government of the Toulouse Nobility. It then passed to their heir Philip III who was of the earlier Capetian Dynasty, and down through all the French Kings till today. We know the House of Bourbon, Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty has held the original grants with the name “Gothia” as per the general history books (one as attached in the graphic). The original territory reached the French Kings by first passing from the Visigothic Princess Brunhilda. She passed it to her heirs, and to the Merovingian King Pepin, see: https://gw.geneanet.org/belfast8?lang=en&p=brunhilda+of+toledo&n=germany . As in the attached image, the whole of Gothia passed rightfully(legally) Dynastically down from Bernard I to his heirs, down to this present day all concretely. Not only the Kings protected all such titles of the province, the dukes and counts also never not ever renounced this legal entity known as Languedoc nor disbanded it in any way. Their claims of this illustrious decent or renounce any rights to this entity. This was all long settled. Things only became a little shaky with the Napoleanic usurpation during the French Revolution. The Brunswick Manifesto was to restore the French King to all his rightful titles, of which Napoleon refused. Therefore Brunswick made good on all promises, as commander-in-chief over all Prussia, commander-in-chief over all Austria and commander-in-chief (in war time) of de jure France(as granted by the rightful King of France giving Brunswick the additional authority in France). Note that Brunswick also has the living title Prince of Gottingen (Gothia) as a Dynastic inheritance, which remains a sub-principality under the duchy of Brunswick and Lunenburg, with this same Prince ranking higher (during war time) than all three Emperors. This begun the war for the French King to be restored under all original rightful titles.

THE LAST FRENCH GOTHIC PRINCE WHO FUNCTIONALLY USED THE FAMILY TITLE OF GOTHIA,THE TITLE WHICH HE INHERITED FROM HIS FAHTER AND GRANDFATHER, “THE PRINCE OF GOTHIA” RAYMOND IV OF TOULOUSE, WAS A LEADER OF THE FIRST CRUSADE.

What a great legacy the Goths have inherited from Raymond IV, the most powerful leader of the First Crusade. 
He was blood successor of the Royal House of Gothia as “Princeps Gothiæ”, and as Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Margrave of Provence. However, the title “Prince of Gothia” was held more prominently by his father and grandfather, as well as his great great grandparents for many generations. 

Upon his victory liberating Jerusalem and the Byzantines,
Raymond was offered the crown of the new Kingdom of Jerusalem. However he refused, as he was reluctant to rule in the city in which Jesus had suffered. He said that he shuddered to think of being called “King of Jerusalem”. It is also likely that he wished to continue the siege of Tripoli rather than remain in Jerusalem. However, he was also reluctant to give up the Tower of David in Jerusalem, which he had taken after the fall of the city, and it was only with difficulty that Godfrey of Bouillon was able to take it from him.

Raymond participated in the battle of Ascalon soon after the capture of Jerusalem, during which an invading army from Egypt was defeated. However, Raymond wanted to occupy Ascalon himself rather than give it to Godfrey, and in the resulting dispute Ascalon remained unoccupied. It was not taken by the crusaders until 1153. Godfrey also blamed him for the failure of his army to capture Arsuf. When Raymond went north, in the winter of 1099–1100, his first act was one of hostility against Bohemond, capturing Laodicea from Bohemond, returning it to the Byzantines.

THESE TWO LINES, VISIGOTH AND OSTROGOTH WERE UNITED IN OTTO IV, THE DUKE OF BRUNSWICK, WHO WAS CROWNED EMPEROR OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

These Royal lines of Visigoths and Ostrogoths (Balti and Amali Dynasties) were again refreshed in Duke Otto IV of Brunswick, who was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire under both the Brunswick and Aquitaine French Coats of Arms through his mother’s side (Matilda). Both sides of her mother’s family held rival claims to succession of the duchy of Toulouse(Gothia). This coat of arms of France and England remains in Brunswick today. For most branches of Brunswick it is used as the oldest version with two lions and sometimes with one lion. Though some branches, including for a time Otto IV used the three lions version.

It should be noted that not only was his mother a rival successor of Toulouse Gothia, but also a successor of the early founder of the House of the Templars (Angevin / Anjou). For a short period Otto IV was heir apparent to the founding house of the Templar, the Angevin (Anjou) Nobility of France. While today none of the French heirs remain known of this family, all except for Brunswick. However the House of Brunswick does but rarely remind France of those rights. One to memory was invoked in the time of the war with Napoleon. However as commander-in-chief of Prussian, Austrian and Brunswick allied armies, there was only offer of assisting the true French King against the violent socialism of the French Revolution. The offer mainly was to protect His Highness from the abuses etc, as any valid and fair sovereign should offer. This offer again was extended to Napoleon III by a treaty to assist Brunswick with reclaiming all German lands under one Empire.

This Angevin and Toulouse (Visigothic) Templar came in part through Henry the Lion’s wife Matilda. However much more of it came through Henry’s own succession of the house of the Billungs(Ostrogoths).

As mother of Emperor Otto IV we recognize he, and the rest of his brothers were heirs of Angevin(Anjou), Aquitaine and all of France. So many Gothian claims were rekindled in Otto IV that his successors made it into law to use the title Prince of Gottingen/Gutingi. This additional French branch from his maternal inheritance, compounded these much further beyond the genealogical claims of the Amelung Billings, and the Guelphic line to Argotta and the most widely esteemed House of the Gothian Emperors.

MOTHER OF ALL FRENCH KINGS, ARGOTTA, AND THE EARLY BRANCH OF THE GUELPHS (BRUNSWICK SENIOR BRANCH)

 It is an unshakable fact the Frankish Kings absorbed and took over a major Gothian title for the part of France now known today as Langudoc. Many know prince Raymond IV of Gothia and Toulouse led the biggest armies of the 1st Crusade (and that he was equal peer of the King of France). Ever since the Frankish prince Alberici married Argotta, the daughter of Theodemir Amalaus King of Gothia, the sister of Theodoric Amali King of Gothia & Italy, and had a son Duke VAUBERTUS (or Wambertus) the title stuck and is in the official histories. Thus making him not only Heir of Gothia via his mother, but also the Grandson of the Sicambrian-Ukrainian descended Davidic King Pharamond on his father’s side (an established link in old Gothia Crimea where they still use the Gothic runes in their liturgy, it’s more similar to Greek letters). It’s also indisputed that the next in succession Gothian son Arnoldus founded the line of which Charlemagne is descended. The Guelphs (Brunswick House) is descended from the Grandaughter of Arnoldus, Princess Gertrude.

This genealogy photocopy is from a 1628 reprint of the from Testamentum Magni, Regis Norvegiae, first written in 1277;–Judicium de scriptis Gasparis Scioppii contra Johannem Vossium et Famianum Stradam; –De variis febrium generibus;–Praelectiones poeticae, 1674;–Conclusiones et decreta Papae et Concilii Hispanici secreti, anno 1615 incepti, et usque ad annum 1627 perducti. Latine. Chartaceus, sec. xvii Quarto [11.247] (as it’s cataloged at the British Museum).

Genealogies, as they relate to these official matters of sovereignty of many nations, have been guarded as some of the most reliable information ever to exist. Allied nations guaranteed this integrity in wars to protect such rights of genealogical succession etc. Today we have some international law that still protects our governments in exile, coupled with several international treaties. The genealogies can be taken as some of the most accurate information there is. Christ’s genealogy also is one example where the records are available and have been used to prove a point. Now we should as well as it relates to Christian property, and being a good steward of what He has given. Anderson’s Genealogies, published in 1732 are widely agreed as absolute. As published below, we find the line reiterated the line of Argotta from the Ostrogothic Kings, and her marriage to Alberici, a prince of the Franks. The “Mother of all French Kings” being Argotta, we have even in the name itself quite the trove of proof for a Godly succession. The House of Brunswick ( Guelphs ) being of this early root. D’Este Guelph Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Oels, Senior Branch,…

GOTHIAN SUCCESSION AND IMPERIAL SUCCESSION

This topic can’t be left without mentioning not only the titles of Gothian Prince, but also of the numerous alloidial blood inheritance of Imperial estates of the last Emperors of several of the ancient lines that passed to this house.

So many alloidial Imperial families’ estates passed to the only male heirs (Brunswick d’Este-Guelph). This is further witness of this being a great Divine gift as we call always,  “by the Grace of God”. At this same time that the Royal Dynasty of the House of the Goths was successfully transmitted and inheritance by the House of Brunswick in Henry the Lion d’Este-Guelph, was the time of Imperial successions. These successions not only were from this period from 900AD through to 1200’s with Emperor Otto IV of Brunswick, but it continued much further on.

In 1400AD the Wolfenbuettel-Brunswick Duke Frederick was elected Emperor,

In the 1600s the last bloodline of the Piasts continued with the Brunswicks,

In the mid 1700’s another Wolfenbuettel-Brunswick Duke Ivan VI became Emperor of all Russia.

There were already so many Imperial lines (none of which the Hapsburg or Prussian families can claim, as their blood were only Counts, of newer houses). However the parents and Grandparents of Henry the Lion who were Emperors and they passed the blood rights of the Empire to this line, above all others.

While already the line was entitled to the highest Kingdoms (ie original greater Saxony, the duchy since the time of Henry the Lion and the ancient Kings of Saxony), it often was withheld by de facto Emperors. Emperor Lothar III (sometimes called Lothar II) of Supplingenburg granted the then head of the House of (d’Este-Guelph), Henry the Proud the full succession credentials to be the Emperor. Henry’s Imperial rule 1137-38 was “from sea to sea, from Denmark to Sicily”, as his Bishop Otto von Feising had boasted.

Emperor Lothar’s ediction of Henry’s succession also expanded his territories, and it included the transmission of the Imperial insignia (Reichskleinodien).

This succession had for decades been understood, and were terms of the entire rule of Lothar, for support from the several provincial dukes of Saxony. It’s traced that this support even from his election till his death, had only been secured by marriage of the Emperor’s only daughter to Henry’s son. The Emperor Lothar had his only child, Gertrude, married to the son of Henry the Black’s son Henry the Proud. Without this marriage his own Imperial succession would not had been recognized by the numerous Dukes of the domains of Henry.

From long before that time, up until today, the House of Brunswick has remained a the oldest living and most senior Imperial house of Germany(incl. beyond German borders), with an equal right to be elected to the throne of Emperor. This is of the original Reich of Charlemagne, under it’s laws which required unbiased voting for an Emperor that only holds that rank during war time. Afterwards is to go back as an equal prince. This mode was how Brunswick continued to operate, and was still often called to be commander-in-chief at times of great wars. The original order had been long usruped by the likes of the Hapsburgs and Prussians. From the inception of such illegal actions it has been met in the fields of battle and has continued even to this day, as shown in the existing treaty of Ham that the current head of House has rights to claim to exercise a right as Emperor of all German lands. The rights to all these estates have continued long since the Guelph and Ghibelline wars/rivalries, and the original stealing of 90% of the estate known as the Duchy of Saxony, of which is still contended for (from Eastphalia to Westphalia etc as the True Saxony borders) and is in the main coat of arms of the house (the coat of arms of the last King of Saxony). For much of the time this senior house has had wars with the current usurpers, Habsburg who have not done true valid elections, where all princes would have an equal chance to be Emperor. So the senior branch of (Wolfenbuettel)Brunswick refused to be electors, unlike the junior branch of (Hanover)Brunswick. Wolfenbuettel-Brunswick maintained seniority in the general college of princes. None of the college of princes nor the electors of the time would recognize Hanover’s illegal creation as a new elector(just to make more votes for Hapsburg, their only supporter). For much of the time till the destructions of Napoleon, the Brunswick’s held title of “Commander-in-Chief” over the entire Empire, a rank higher than the Kaiser in time of war. So in practice still the claim had remained somewhat recognized.

However, often Brunswick has prevailed. Brunswick being the alloidial capital for the older Saxon Emperors of which the dukes of Brunswick descend. The transmission of the Imperial mantle continued from one Saxony duke to the next, Otto IV of Brunswick. Henry the Lion’s son, Otto IV von Brunswick also wore the Imperial insignia that was originally belonging to the house, when he was officially crowned Emperor, and recognized worldwide. There was one condition from the pope, that he would not retake the family’s possessions of Sicily. He broke that promise and for that reason was excommunicated, however the family from that day, till today has never abdicated this right and title of right to be Emperor, nor the titles that are most foundational of the Empire, as Europe’s oldest and most senior living Royal family (in legal international and prescriptive law).

THE SWEDISH AND DANISH HOUSE OF GOTHIA

Today (till 1972) the ruling house of the Danes (House of Glucksburg) have used the title King of the Goths.

This naming of Gothia goes back to ancient times. The whole area there, Denmark and Southern Sweden has all been called Gothia. It also had a breakdown of it’s own Ostrogothia and Westrogothia, etc. While those borders often changed, it was still understood that the region’s overall name was Gothia (and many historians wrote Geats, comparing them with Samogetia, and those tribes around Latvia and going down into the Billunger lands Westerward to around Luneburg).

The line of Brunswick goes back to Wulhild of Saxony, the daughter of Olaf II, King of Norway. Her mother was of the Royal House of Gothia. A chart has been put together as follows:

THE CONTINUAL PROTECTIONS OF CRIMEAN GOTHIA

Arguably one of the oldest, yet one of the most recent in utilizing the title “Prince of Gothia” has been in the Crimea. It should be noted that the Guelphs have long maintained Noble representatives at the court of Gothia at Caffa. This was through the periods Caffa was part of the colonies of Genoa, the Gulephic republic.

The Guelph heraldic cross being a Red Cross on a white background was not only the arms of Genoa, but it can be found on the civic arms of traditionally Guelph towns like Milan, Vercelli, Alessandria, Padua, Reggio and Bologna.
Some individuals and families indicated their faction affiliation in their coats of arms by including an appropriate chief: Guelphs had a capo d’Angio or “chief of Anjou”, gold fleurs-de-lys on a blue field, with a red heraldic “label”

The city shields are is a witness of the history of the past struggles between the Guelph (Templar) and the Ghibelline (Hospitaller) aligned cities. Each having the reverse shield of the cross. These two warring Imperial factions were arch rivals for the Imperial throne of the Holy Roman Empire.

While various popes declared nearly a dozen crusades against the Turks, especially at Caffa Crimea, very few heeded the call. In the book “The Colonies of Genoa in the Black Sea Region”, by Khvalkov, page 225, it says that at the Bishopric of Caffa, Gothia, that the Guelphs were considered Nobles and maintained a Noble representative of Guelph there in Crimea, but for Ghibelline(or other Venetian) he doesn’t mention them as Noble representatives.

Today the junior cadet branches of Este have a dominance in this area of Italy. However the senior branch of Este Guelph is Brunswick Wolfenbuettel. This has remained a perpetual claim of the house, recognized by all parties.

This same house had filed petitions to the Russian and Ukrainian Embassy for a peace agreement before too much bloodshed issued during Kiev’s maidan and nationalist protests from 2013-2014. The original peace proposal included terms of placing Crimea under control of the House of Nott-Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel. In the document the main claim of Ukrainian suffrage rights were in the fact that the Nott side of the family has several lines to the original founding house of the Kiev Rus Nobility. One of those lines was documented in the correspondence.

The House of Brunswick also remains tied with the successions of the Prince Bishops of Crimean Gothia. This includes the present Archbishop of Gothia at Crimea and their several dioceses.

+ Ambrose von Sievers, of the Metropolitanate of Gothia is a Bishop of the True Orthodox Church (Russian Catacomb Church). It is the successive church that has escaped the persecutions of the Bolsheviks and their successive agents. His church is considered in some circles as non-canonical because of it’s refusal to submit to the KGB installed church. As the escaped Andrewite Bishop did canonically consecrate +Ambrose, it is believed therefore the church of the Goths is truly canonical unlike many other jurisdictions. However, the persecutions have continued, as the Clergy have been attacked and killed over the last two generations. 

APPENDIX

1. Ottonian Imperial Line of Brunswick

  1. Ottonian Emperor Seals (used today in Brunswick heraldry)

  1. Seals of Otto IV of Brunswick 

    Duke Otto of Brunswick, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

           

  2. Russian Emperor Ivan VI Brunswick-Wolfenbuettel-Romanov 

More articles on this and surrounding topics are available at www.orthodoxchurch.nl.

Praise YAHWEH every day for each victory as we “seek first His Kingdom law governance on earth” our daily prayer of Christendom.